Department of Environment and Ecology

Fifth semester

Course ABL (301):

1-    The concept of ecosystem.

2-       The importance of studying the types of ecosystems.

3-      Food web and food chain analysis

4-      Groups and composition of ecosystem

5-     Analysis of ecosystem for different environment in the biosphere.

6-      biotic-processes

7-      Problems of ecosystem.

8-      Ecosystem in Sudan.

9-      conservation of ecosystem.


Course (302):  Geographical Information System.


1-       Principles and concepts of Gus and Application.

2-         Operating System in Gus.

3-        Geographic data base (Source , symbols and models).

4-       Models and Analysis in Gus(Digital elevation model (DEM)).


Course (303):Environmental thought and movement.

1-       Environmental thought.

2-         Determinism and possibolism approach.

3-         Development of environmental thought.

4-        Conferences, Connections, Regional and international organization that interested and deal with environment.

5-         Environmental movements.

6-         Governmental and national environmental movement in Sudan.


Course (305):  Principle of soil sciences.

1-       Definition of soil Geography and its relation  with other related sciences.

2-        Factors of soil formation.

3-        Processes of soil formation.

4-         Principles of soil classification.

5-         Morphological  properties of soils.

Course (307): Remote Sensing Systems

Course (309): Hydrology.


1-     Relation between Geography and Hydrology.

2-     Water cycle.

3-      Water balance.

4-       Water harvesting.

5-       International standards for water usage.

6-     Underground water  ( Sudan as an example).

7-     The problem of fresh water in the world.

8-     River Nile potentialities and future.

9-     Water Development and Management.

10-                                                                                                                                                                                     Laboratory Analysis of water


Course (311):Geomorphology of Drainage  Basins.


1-     The concept of drainage  Basin Geomorphology .

2-      Drainage Geomorphologic Processes.

3-     Geomorphological phenomenon as an outcome of water flow.

4-     Drainage Basin morphometric characteristics .

5-     Drainage Basin G geomorphological characteristics.






Second semester 

Course (302): Remote Sensing Systems

Course (304):Tropical and vulnerable environment.

1-    The concept of tropical environment.

2-    The concept of vulnerable environment.

3-     The ecosystem of tropical and vulnerable environment.

4-     Human activities in tropical vulnerable environmental.

5-      Theories of environmental degradation related to topical and vulnerable environment.


Course (306  ):Research Methodology:-

1-       Research problem.

2-        Hypothecs of the research.

3-       The concept of the community .

4-       Sample and sampling.

5-        Methods used in the research.

6-        Procedures of sample selection.

7-       Theoretical frame work and approaches.

8-        Methods of Analysis.

9-        Steps of scientific research.

10-  Field  excursion and data collection.

11-  Concept and characteristics of scientific research.

12-   Measurement of central tendency

13-  Coefficient of variation

14-  Application on computer. Statistical analysis (spss)


Course (308):  geography of Tourism.

1-       The concept of tourism and its relation with related sciences.

2-       Type of tourism and importance of tourism activities.

3-        Geographical and environmental constituents of tourism

4-       Tourism economics.

5-       Potentialities' of tourism activities in Sudan


Course (310): Patterns  From Sudanese Environment.

1-    Classification of environments (main basis).

2-     Reciprocal relation between Humans and Sudan environment like:-

.     A.   Desert and semi-desert environment.

B.   environment of the Red-Sea region.

C.   environment of South Sudan.

D.   Environment of Jebel Marra.

E.    Environment of clay plain in east and west Sudan.

F.   Environment of Sand dunes. 

Course (312): Environmental Education and Security:-

1-    Concept of environmental education

2-    The relation between  education and environment.

3-     Objectives and principles of environmental education.

4-     Culture and environmental education .

5-     Culture, environment and natural resource management.


Course (314):Oceanography.


1-     Origin and immergence and Oceans and Seas and their distribution.

2-     Physical characteristics and motion of Oceans:

1-    General distribution.

2-    Waves.

3-    Ocean currents.

4-    Temperature.

5-     Salinity.

6-    Tides….etc

3-     Geomorphology of Ocean floor

4-     Ancient  and future change in Ocean and Sea level; causes and results.

5-     Influence and control on World climate :

1-    Oxygen generation.

2-     Evaporation.

3-     Cold and warm currents

4-    .Nino and lanino.

6-     Ocean and Sea water pollution (Ocean-Sea)

7-       Importance of Ocean transport on trade exchange and means of communication.

8-        Natural resources and the methods of utilization /exploitation


Course (316):Application of Remote Sensing:-

1-     Theories and concepts of RS Application.

2-     Selection of suitable systems on application .

3-      Application of RS on natural resources.

4-      Application of RS on water .

5-      Application of RS  on environment.

6-     Application  RS on population studies.




Seventh semester

Course (401): Applied Mathematics

Course (403):Environmental economics .


1-    Renewal of environmental resources.

2-     Environmental quality.

3-       Economic Impact of decrease of quality basic environmental resources( Air, water).

4-      Economic Assessment for environmental Impact of development projects.

5-       EIA  For economic development projects


Course (405): Medical Geography

1-     Concept of Medical Geography and its relation with other sciences.

2-       Historical development of medical Geography, its themes, methods and theories.

3-       Geographical analysis of diseases spreading

4-       Study of health services (types, distribution, its quality and    Quantity).( sufficient ness and effectiveness).

5-       Study of relation between environment, and development from Geographical perspective


Course (407):Urban environmen 


1-    Concept of urban environment.

2-    Bases and classification of urban environment.

3-    Urban environment and environmental consideration.

4-    Problem of urban environment.

5-    Urban environment and environmental quality.

6-     Development of urban environment


Course (409):  planning and Management of Development in Sudan.

1-    Concept, philosophy and theoretical frame of planning and management of development.

2-    Relation between planning and management of development.

3-    Directives of management of development in Sudan.

4-    Problem of planning and management of development in Sudan.

5-    Theoretical debates for the relation between environment and development.

6-    Critical analysis for the concepts and methods of sustainable development and its requirement.

7-    Operational  frame for the relation between environment and sustainable development.

8-     Basic concepts for the relation between environment and development.

Course (411): Introduction to Expert  System and Decision Support System


1-    Concepts of Expert System.

2-    Benefits of Expert System.

3-    Expert System and spatial decision.

4-    Geo-technologies and Expert Systems.

5-    Application of expert system on environment, population….etc






Eighth semester

Course (402):  population and environment


1-     Theoretical frame for the relation between population and environment.

2-     Concepts and theories of population.

3-     Concepts and theories of environment.

4-     Interrelation between population and environment.

5-     Environmental on population .

6-     Effects of population on environment.

7-     Population and environmental awareness .

8-      Education of impact of interaction between human and environment.

9-     Population policy and its impact on environment.


Course ():Oceanography:-



Course ABL (404): Natural Resources Management

1-   Study of the administration and institutional framework of the natural resources management .

2-   To know the economical, social, political and cultural gradients of resources concept.

3-   The role of the natural resources in forming the economical, social and political relationship.

4-   natural resources and human development.

5-   The conflict around the natural resources – the relational debate between the resources, development and sustainable social  peace.

6-   The legislating basis for natural resources management.

7-    The natural resources and the socio-political conflict in Sudan


Course ABL (408): The Problems of environmental Pollution

1-   The concept of environmental pollution

2-   Images for the water, air and noise environmental pollution.

3-   Soils pollution and the pollutants ( liquid, solid and gas ).

4-   The socio-economical impacts of environmental pollution.

5-   The ways to combat pollution


Course ABL (410): Field Excursion

The students will satisfy field trip with determined area within the Sudan. The trip well be organized and planned under the supervision of department staff. The duration of the trip not less than two weeks.

1-      Students during the trip do many academic activities as training in how to collect data, how to organize data, and how to do that in night seminars to practice how to present data and how to manage the scientific discussion.

2-      After the field the students should be evaluated through different mechanisms such as writing a report, or setting to examination or from their discussion contributions.


Course ABL (414): The Planning and development of Forests and pastures

1-   Definition, principals and aims of the pastures management.

2-   The main pasture systems.

3-   The monitoring and measurement methods of pastures and forests management.

4-   The carrying capacity and its methods of measurement.

5-   The impact indicators of  forests and pastures degradation.

6-   To determine the condition and the trends of pastures.

7-    The enhancement basis and development of the pasture and forest resources.

8-   Legislations and policies – pastures extension.

9-   Development strategy and Forests and pastures management.

10-       The economics of forests and pastures.

-         To measure the direct and indirect benefits

-         Ecological value measurement.

-          Forestay and pastures economical assessment methods


Course ABL (416): The Meteorological and Regional Climate

1-   climatological studies and weather forecasting.

2-   The ways of explaining the air and weather information for establishing climatological models.

3-   The principals of preparation and analyzing the daily weather maps.

4-   To know the climatological observatory means and their types.

5-   Study of climatological observatory patterns and networks.

6-   Definition of regional climatology and its significance in geographical studies.

7-   General basis of climatological classification; historical and methodological.

8-   Climate classifications selected models.

9-   Applied some of the classifications upon the climate of the Sudan.





Eight semester

Course ABL (501): The Experts Systems and Support Decision system

1-     The concept of expert systems and its importance in environmental studies.

2-     The design of the expert systems and support decision system.

3-     Knowledge types and the laws used in expert systems.

4-     The building of the expert systems.

5-     The realization of Knowledge correction.

6-     The realization of the expert systems and support decision results.


Course ABL (503): The environmental Information

1-   The concept of the environmental information.

2-   The aims and mechanisms of environmental information.

3-   The role of the environmental information in raising the environmental attitudes.

4-   The green environmental conservation  groups.


Course ABL (505): The environmental Planning

1-      The concept, importance, benefits and aims of the environmental planning.

2-      The elements of the environmental planning.

3-      The relationship between Environmental attitudes and environmental planning.

4-      The role of the local participation in environmental planning.

5-      The stakeholders of environmental planning.

6-      environmental planning and the environmental management.

7-      The environmental planning in Sudan.


Course ABL (507): The environment, Development and Woman

1-       the role of the woman in environmental conservation and its degradation.

2-       The role of woman in ideal environmental management.

3-       The contribution of the woman in education, health.

4-       The role of the woman in issues concerning environmental uses development, such as:

-         the definition and concepts of gender.

-         The awareness of woman towards the environment.

-         The positive role of the woman towards the environment main constraints.

-         Examples of the woman efforts to enhance the environment in Sudan.

-         The role of woman in the family and national economy.

-         The legislation, economical and social problems that hinder the contribution of the woman.

-         To assess the role of the woman in the environment.

-         The role of the women organization in environmental development


Course ABL (509): Dissertation


Course ABL (511): Soil Sciences

1-   The nature and properties of Soils ( practical examples).

2-   Soils pollution ( Laboratory and field application).

3-    Soils reclamation and soils conservation

4-   Detailed study for Sudan's soils and their uses.


Course ABL (513): Selected Topics in Physical Geography

The course treated in detailed some selected topics in applied physical environmental and the theory, such as climate change, environmental pollution, drought and desertification, and the recent climate classifications.






Tenth semester

Course ABL (502): Environmental Impacts Assessment

1-   The concept of environmental impacts.

2-   The general objectives of EIA.

3-   The human activities of environmental impacts (positive / negative)

4-   The phases of environmental impacts assessment.

5-   EIA methodologies.

6-   Elements and information needed in EIA.

7-   The team and human element of EIA.

8-   EIA Problems.

9-   EIA predictions

10-    Laws and legislation of EIA.

11-    Study of selected examples.

Course ABL (504): Environmental Quality and Control

1-   The concept of environmental control.

2-    The concept of environmental quality.

3-   Environmental capacity.

4-   Aims and mechanisms of environmental quality.

5-   The ideal environmental management.

6-   Aims and mechanisms of environmental control.

Course ABL (508): Disasters and Disasters Management

1-   The definition of the disasters

2-   The relationship between disasters and Geography.

3-   Natural and human disasters types and their causes and effects.

4-   The distribution of disasters areas.

5-    The possibility of disasters forecasting.

6-   The pre, post and in time management of disasters.

7-   Detailed study for some examples.

Course ABL (510): Environmental management and Land use

1-   The laws and legislation in the field of environmental protection.

2-   Basic concepts.

3-   Aims of the  environmental management and land use.

4-   The international and local experiences in the domain of legislation and environmental management laws.

5-   Institutional frameworks to apply the laws of environmental management and land use.

6-   Sudan's environmental management and land use laws.

Course ABL (512): Advanced Statistical Analysis

1-   Hypothesis and

2-   Statistical modeling.

3-   Factors and determinants of the Statistical modeling

4-   Linear regression.

5-   The scientific experiments and how it evaluate.

6-   Computer applications.

7-   ANOVA analysis ( K2).

Course ABL (514): Contemporary Environmental Issues in Planning and development

1-   The conservation and protection of the biodiversity

2-   The conservation and protection of the natural resources.

3-   The conservation and protection of the wildlife.

4-   The concepts of the wildlife.

5-   The conservation of the threatening species.

6-   The relationship between environmental security and development.

7-   Drought and desertification.

8-   Tsunamis and its impacts.

9-   The global system and environmental problems.

10-       The international trade and environmental problems

11-       Wars and conflicts and their relation with environmental degradation.

12-       Climate change: Ozone whole, global warming and acid rains